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【托福備考】攻克閱讀長難句中的并列結構

時間:2020-03-08 來源:互聯網 責編:IAELANA 在線咨詢
標簽:攻克閱讀長難句中的并列結構 

近期,托福®考試決定取消在中國大陸地區三月份所有考試。至此,中國大陸地區二、三月份所有托福考試均已取消。雖然考試取消,但同學們課程的學習卻不可松懈,同學們應該和升學規劃導師深度溝通,重新調整考試計劃和學習計劃。更要抓緊時間學習,夯實基礎,爭取在考試恢復后一舉拿下高分。今天我們邀請了海派外語的實力派導師Joyce Fang來給大家解讀托福的學習方法和技巧。

作者簡介:Joyce Fang,海派外語實力派導師

 

眾所周知,托福閱讀的一大難點就是長難句的理解,而句中的并列結構看似不起眼,卻往往會成為準確理解句意的一大障礙。本文將為大家深入講解如何快速準確地識別托福閱讀長難句中的并列結構。

 

 

識別并列結構的邏輯詞

除了最熟知的and之外,以下表并列的邏輯詞也是經常出現在托福文章中的:

or, also, as well as, both … and …, not only … but (also)…, too, apart from, in addition (to), additionally, besides, moreover furthermore, one …, another …, some … , others …, alternative, another.

 

識別并列結構的重要特征

從句子層面來看,并列結構的重要特征之一就是并列成分的詞性屬性和語法結構完全一致。

例如,A, B, and C, 則A、B、C的屬性一致,可以是名詞、名詞性詞組、介詞短語、從句等。此外,and一般僅出現在并列結構的最后一處,因此在識別并列結構時可以先把握and 后面的語法結構,例如and后面是doing…的結構,就可以去and前面尋找與之并列的doing…結構。

 

 

 

案例分析

下面我們來看看托福閱讀中存在并列結構的句子。

1、 名詞或名詞性短語之間的并列。名詞之間的并列一般以列舉形式出現。

(1) It even affects the climate on a very local level by influencing light intensity, humidity,and both the range and extremes of temperature. (TPO40-2)

分析:

此處的light intensity, humidity, both the range and extremes of temperature為三個名詞或名詞性短語并列成分,較為簡單。

 

(2) The basic cultural requirements for the successful colonization of the Pacific islands include the appropriate boating-building, sailing, and navigation skills to get to the islands in the first place domesticated plants and gardening skills suited to often marginal conditions, and a varied inventory of fishing implements and techniques.

分析:

此句and較多,但從大的層面來看,此句可簡化為The basic cultural requirements include A, B, and C.,具體分別是:

A. the appropriate boat-building, sailing and navigation skills;

B. domesticated plants and gardening skills;

C. a varied inventory of fishing implements and techniques.

 

2、動詞或動詞短語之間的并列

(1) The fact that some societies domesticated animals and plants, discovered the use of metal tools, became literate, and developed a state should not make us forget that others developed pastoralism or horticulture (vegetable gardening) but remained illiterate and at low levels of productivity.

分析:

此句the fact that引導的同位語從句中,some societies后面的謂語動詞分別是domesticated, discovered, became, and developed,四個動賓結構構成并列關系,而主句可簡化為The fact that… should not make us forget that …。

 

(2) According to conventional theory, yawning takes place when people are bored or sleepyand serves the function of increasing alertness by reversing, through deeper breathing, the drop in blood oxygen levels that are caused by the shallow breathing that accompanies lack of sleep or boredom.

分析:

此句takes place和serves the function構成并列關系,說明了yawning發生的時間和功能。

 

——華通海派在線課堂

3、介詞或介詞短語之間的并列

(1) Inequalities of gender have also existed in pastoralist societies, but they seem to have been softened by the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth in most communities, and also by the requirement that women acquire most of the skills of men.

分析:

此處by the absence of …與by the requirement …構成介詞短語并列,說明性別不平等被弱化的兩個原因:

①  the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth;

② the requirement that women acquire most of the skills of men。

 

(2) The West had plenty of attractions: the alluvial river bottoms, the fecund soils of the rolling forest lands, the black loams of the prairies were tempting to New England farmers working their rocky, sterile land and to southeastern farmers plagued with soil depletion and erosion.

分析:

此句有兩處并列結構,可簡化為X, Y, Z were tempting A and B.:

①  X,Y,Z分別為the alluvial river bottoms, the fecund soils of the rolling forest lands, the black loams of the prairies,列舉西部吸引人的地方。

② A,B分別為to New England farmers與to southeastern farmers,說明吸引的對象是新英格蘭農民和東南部的農民。

 

 

4、非謂語動詞之間的并列

非謂語動詞包括現在分詞doing,過去分詞done,不定時to do,下面以doing為例。

例句:The first steps toward change were taken by Solon in 594 B.C., when he broke the aristocracy’s stranglehold on elected offices by establishing wealth rather than birth as the basis of office holding, abolishing the economic obligations of ordinary Atheninas to the aristocracy, and allowing the assembly to overrule the decisions of local courts in certain cases.

分析:

此句中establishing…, abolishing … and allowing … 三個doing結構構成并列關系,列舉打破貴族對于官職壟斷的三種方式。抓住這種并列關系,就能更快速地理解長難句了。

 

5、 從句或句子之間的并列

(1) Pioneer species – those that occur only in the earliest stages of colonization – tend to have high rates of invasion because they produce very large numbers of reproductive propagules (seeds, spores, and so on) and because they have an efficient means of dispersal (normally, wind).

分析:

此句是由because引導的兩個并列的原因狀語,說明pioneer species tend to have high rates of invasion的兩個原因。

 

(2) As the seaweed and marsh grass leaves die, bacteria break down the plant material,and insects, small shrimplike organisms, fiddler crabs, andmarsh snails eat the decaying plant tissue, digest it, and excrete wastes high in nutrients.

分析:

此句并列成分較多,首先and連接的并列句,后半部分還有兩處小并列:

①  insects, small shrimplike organisms, fiddler crabs, and marsh snails四種動物并列;

②  eat, digest, and excrete三個動詞并列

 

 

6、被插入語打斷的并列成分

當句子中的并列成分被插入語打斷時,會加大并列結構的識別難度。

例句:The focus of life was the agora, the open marketplace where assemblies could be held and where issues of the day, as well as more fundamental topics such as the purpose of government or the relationship between law and freedom, could be discussed and decisions made by individuals in person.

分析:

此句兩個where引導定語從句修飾open marketplace,而第二個定語從句中,主干被as well as …的插入成分打斷,可先剔除,即issues of the day could be discussed and decisions made by individuals in person,此處and又引導并列句,且decisions后面省略了與前半句相同的could be結構,即open marketplace的三個功能:

① hold assemblies

② discuss issues of the day

③ make decisions

 

 

提高敏感度,遵循語法原則

總而言之,在識別并列結構過程中,需要提高對并列邏輯詞的敏感度,再遵循著并列結構前后語法屬性一致的原則找到所有并列成分即可。當準確識別出句子的并列結構,理解上也就更清晰易懂了。

 

練習時間

相信通過以上講解,大家已經對并列結構的識別有了新的認識,那么就用下面兩個句子檢測一下吧 

(1) These include conducting vessels that transport water and minerals upward from the roots and that move the photosynthetic products from the leaves to the rest of the plant body and the stiffening substance lignin, which support the plant body, helping it expose maximum surface area to sunlight.

 

(2) Thus there are no New Zealand snakes, and bats, which flew there, and seals, which swam there, were the only mammals on New Zealand when Polynesian settles (the Maori) arrived there about a thousand years ago.

 

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